At the beginning of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire extended from Iraq via North Africa to the Balkans and also Greece. Territorially, the Ottoman Empire was still a great power, but the Ottoman-Russian War had shown that neither the military was at a modern level, nor that the internal structure of the empire was...Mehr lesen
South America was firmly in Spanish hands since the beginning of colonization. Although Spanish rule began with brute force against the native population, over time a system of joint administration of Spanish officials and privileged Creoles (American-born whites) established itself and a long period of stability returned. It was not until the revolution of black people...Mehr lesen
After the declaration of independence of the United States of America, the country declared its political and military neutrality for the conflicts on the European mainland. France, in particular, was disappointed with this decision because the country was at war with England and demanded a return from the Americans for their help in the Revolutionary...Mehr lesen
After the victories against the Prussians, Austrians and Russians, Napoleon dominated Central Europe and was able to enforce its political objectives without resistance. From former opponents Frankrich he forced ally, so with Russia after the Peace of Tilsit in July 1807. But Tsar Alexander I considered it a shame to be only a secondary ally...Mehr lesen
Napoleon had not only made a name for himself during the Revolutionary Wars as a brilliant tactician in dozens of battles, but always directed his troops to the extent that he could determine the course of the battles according to his ideas. Thus, after his rise to sole ruler in France, he was able to...Mehr lesen
Before the French Revolution, France sought to reform its army and restore military power in Europe. For this purpose, the army officer Jean-Baptiste de Gribeauval developed a new artillery system, with improved guns to implement the presented by Graf de Guibert warfare with fast and mobile armies. In addition, military academies were opened in France, which...Mehr lesen
The 10-year French Revolution is one of the most momentous events of the early modern period in Europe. For the first time in history, the lowest levels of society rebelled against the ruling class, leading to the overthrow of France and plunging Europe into another war.Mehr lesen
Backgrounds:After the seven-year war France suffered from increasing...
Even before the reign of Catherine, Russia was involved in several wars, including the Northern War and the War of the Austrian Succession. Under Peter the Great (1682-1725) the former backward Russian army became a powerful and modern force. This Katharina took advantage of in her reign and enlarged her country by a considerable area.