Category Archives: 2. War in the Middle Ages (500 – 1500)

The fall of the Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire was a result of the 2 division of the former All-Roman Empire in 395 to the two rulers Honorius and Arcadius, both sons of the Roman ruler Theodosius.   But while the Western Roman Empire slowly countered its downfall, the Eastern Roman Empire could survive for some years. After the downfall of West Rome...
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The Anglo-Scottish War

Unlike today, in the thirteenth century Britain was not one country but two kingdoms, England and Scotland, as well as the autonomous Principality of Wales. Despite the size and wealth of England at that time, the rulers could never assert a union.   This changed when Edward I became king of England and invaded Wales in 1277...
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The Crusades within Europe

In the 12th century, the Church of Europe was not only faced with enemies from the outside, more and more people questioned the doctrines of the church or adopted other faiths. In order to stop and eradicate this disintegration of the European order, Pope Innocent III. in 1209 for a crusade against the Cathars living...
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The Mongol Empire

The origins of the Mongol Empire were the widespread and scattered nomadic tribes of Central Asia. These tribes have been known for generations to argue among themselves about livestock and grazing land rather than showing each other. Rarely did it come to mergers of some tribes, usually the reason was an attack on settled people...
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The Japanese gempei war

Hardly any other war like the Gempei war had such far-reaching effects on Japanese society and military sentiment.   In Japan, in the 12th century, so-called "clans" had formed, which were the secret rulers on the island and based their power on the legendary samurai warriors who were subject to them. The emperor played at this time...
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The fall of the Crusaders in the Middle East

With the capture of Jerusalem in 1099 and the founding of many small states such as the Principality of Antioch, the County of Edessa or the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Christian crusaders were at the height of their power in the Middle East in the late 11th and early 12th centuries. However, it soon became clear...
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