After the secession of South America from the US Union and their own state founded, also the existing US Army was divided, with the larger proportion of soldiers changed to the new Confederate Army. But just like the northern states, conscription was introduced in the south and volunteers recruited to build a powerful army for the upcoming civil war with the north.
On February 28, 1861, the newly-formed Confederate Congress approved the establishment of a Volunteer Army to reinforce the existing soldiers of the former US Army. On the 6th of March, 1861, the license to build a professional army followed. Like the northern states, however, the largest associations represented the respective states with their militias. In summary, around 460,000 soldiers were actively involved in the war on the part of the Confederation.
The ranks were taken over by the US Army, only the design was changed. Due to the supply difficulties that became apparent in the course of the war with the troops of the Confederation, there was never a uniform uniform. Although the government of the southern states made demands such as a long-sleeved, gray tunic and mid-blue trousers, but the material shortage later became brown uniforms, if any still existed. In part, the soldiers had to fight in their private clothes at the end of the war.
Ranks of non-commissioned officers:
- First Sergeant
- Sergeant Major
Corporal (1), Sergeant (2), Ordnance-Sergeant (3), First Sergeant (4), Quartermaster-Sergeant (5), Sergeant Major (6)
- 2. Lieutenant
- 1. Lieutenant
2. Lieutenant (7), 1. Lieutenant (8), Captain (9), Major (10), Lieutenant-Colonel (11), Colonel (12)
Like the Union Army, the army of the Confederacy was divided into several field armies led by a general. In this field army, the three branches of infantry, artillery and cavalry were combined, as well as special troops such as pioneer, telecommunications and logistics troops, the medical service and leadership troops such as the field jurisdiction and adjutants.
- field army
- - 2 to 4 Corps (corps introduced from 1862)
- - - 2 to 6 divisions
- - - - 2 to 6 brigades
- - - - - 3 to 6 regiments
- - - - - - up to 10 companies
War Flag of the Southern States:
War flags of the Confederate States, armies and corps:
As with the Union troops, the Springfield Model 1861 muzzle-loader rifle was considered a standard infantry weapon, and the Confederate Infantry's pattern was the 1853 Enfield Rifled Musket .577 caliber imported from England. However, the armament was not uniform among the soldiers of the southern states. It differed from state to state. When calling volunteers and conscripts, it was not uncommon for them to bring their own rifles. These different weapons had the disadvantage that many different calibers for ammunition production had to be considered.
The artillery were used as in the northern states predominantly twelve-pounder guns of the type M 1857 Napoleon bronze and smooth barrel and 3-inch Ordnance Rifle or Parrot guns.
Commander-in-chief of the Confederation troops:
The President of the Confederate States Jefferson Davis set the objectives for the army, his two military advisers with full authority over the army were General Robert Edward Lee and General Braxton Bragg. The War Office was responsible for implementing the strategic goals.
Man strength and losses:
At the same time, never more than 460,000 soldiers served in the Confederate Army throughout the Civil War. 850,000 to 900,000 soldiers served estimates as a result during the civil war in the army, but there are no exact records. Overall, the southern army had losses of about 260,000 men.
You can find the right literature here:
Life In The Confederate Army: Being The Observations And Experiences Of An Alien In The South During The American Civil War
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Marching Masters: Slavery, Race, and the Confederate Army during the Civil War (A Nation Divided: Studies in the Civil War Era)
The Confederate army went to war to defend a nation of slaveholding states, and although men rushed to recruiting stations for many reasons, they understood that the fundamental political issue at stake in the conflict was the future of slavery. Most Confederate soldiers were not slaveholders themselves, but they were products of the largest and most prosperous slaveholding civilization the world had ever seen, and they sought to maintain clear divisions between black and white, master and servant, free and slave.
In Marching Masters Colin Woodward explores not only the importance of slavery in the minds of Confederate soldiers but also its effects on military policy and decision making. Beyond showing how essential the defense of slavery was in motivating Confederate troops to fight, Woodward examines the Rebels’ persistent belief in the need to defend slavery and deploy it militarily as the war raged on. Slavery proved essential to the Confederate war machine, and Rebels strove to protect it just as they did Southern cities, towns, and railroads. Slaves served by the tens of thousands in the Southern armies―never as soldiers, but as menial laborers who cooked meals, washed horses, and dug ditches. By following Rebel troops' continued adherence to notions of white supremacy into the Reconstruction and Jim Crow eras, the book carries the story beyond the Confederacy’s surrender.
Drawing upon hundreds of soldiers’ letters, diaries, and memoirs, Marching Masters combines the latest social and military history in its compelling examination of the last bloody years of slavery in the United States.
Black Southerners in Confederate Armies: A Collection of Historical Accounts
Large numbers of slaves and freedmen served the South, in some cases as soldiers and sailors for the Confederacy. This book uses official records, newspaper articles, and veteransï¿½ accounts to tell the enlightening stories of these Black Confederates.
The Confederate Soldier: Being A Memorial Sketch Of George N. And Bushrod W. Harris, Privates In The Confederate Army