What at all is military?
Military one calls with weapons equipped humans a state usually serves and tasks of outside and internal security is assigned and additionally as support forces to serve can..
The designation military (of French militaire, singular ‚that military `; Majority: ‚military `) also as synonym for a number of members of the armed forces (soldiers) one uses. In the singular it stands similarly as the name rank for individual military personnels of the officers and generals.
Meaning of the military
The main use of the military is usually placed in front for the guarantee of outside security, thus the defense of the country, or its allies before dangers by other armed forces, organizations or groupings. Opposite the guarantee of of the inside security stands, with which the society must be protected against dangers, which develop in the country.
As tasks are for example fixed for the German Federal Armed Forces:
- International conflict prevention and crisis management, including the fight against the international terrorism
- support of allies
- protection of the inland and its citizens
- rescue and evacuation,
- partnership and co-operation
- assistance (legal assistance, natural catastrophes, particularly heavy accidents)
The instrument in principle, which is to armed forces for this purpose at the disposal and is differentiated according to (after that Geneva conventions) the Kombattanten by civilians, is traditionally the force of arms. Tensions between states can cause military conflicts, however increasingly also different dangers, like terrorism for combat missions causal, become whereby the armed forces are confronted nowadays more and more with so-called unorthodox warfare. In addition the task of the military is no longer exclusively limited to armed conflicts, but move techniques of the acquisition of information, international peace missions or other kinds of the military argument, for example the so-called „Cyberwar “, into the foreground.
In the public the military constituted an important component for the national understanding particularly in the past. While the today's western society stands for the military rather critically opposite, often was it (z. B. at present the German Empire of) an important factor of the Patriotismus (closer see: Militarism). Particularly in militarily coined/shaped countries, like China or the USA, the armed forces play a crucial role, in order to demonstrate power. The armed forces are by nature an important support leg of the policy, in particular in the outside and security politics. The Ausuferung of a power of the military can lead from the suppression of a people up to a Putsch and a military government.
Apart from the defense the military has also more extensive fields of application like the peacekeaping measures (z. B. when international blue helmet in corroding), disaster relief (so also Hurrican Katrina), penetration of the economic and political interests of a country/an alliance (like the often criticized „oil wars “) and ceremonies of purposes (and. A. State receptions).
Characteristics of the military
Armed forces are usually characterised (and after international standards) by the following characteristics:
- You stand under a uniform command, which is responsible to the state in relation to for the guidance of the subordinated ones
- The members differ by uniforms, badges, indications or other outside characteristics recognizable from the distance from the civilian population
- the soldiers are subject to an internal Disziplinarsystem, which implements the rules of warfare in case of application also
- you are armed (a soldier must lead its weapon openly)
Military organizations are characterised by a hierarchical rank structure, which a command structure follows. All soldiers are subject thereby to the principle of instruction and obedience opposite their superiors and must accept certain restrictions of their liberties and fundamental rights.
The military has in most states and also after the international law of war (z. B. by those Geneva conventions and Hague the Land Warfare Convention) a separate status. Soldiers (so-called Kombattanten) take a special status, by being subject to a particularly furnished military jurisdiction, as well as an international people criminal law in many states (z. B. International military court yard). The so-called internal guidance coined/shaped by ranking and obedience (see military instruction), however to have soldiers in Germany the possibility outside of the normal official routine to the militaryassigned to turn, that the treatment „of the citizens in uniform “toward valid right supervises themselves.
Military service and reserve system:
In many states of the world, in particular in those with long military tradition, or when constant threat (z. B. , The citizens for a certain period in army or another military formation (for example within the range of the disaster control) must serve Israel, where also women are obligated to the military service) their country. This system of the military service is to prepare (mostly male) the population for the case of a war, in which they can be obligated then if necessary to the service at the weapon, in order to defend their country as reservists. These persons can be drawn in and stood, if they were judged as able-bodied, in emergency to armed forces thus as so-called reserve system for order.
Distinction possibilities of the military
Each armed force is differently organized, however can be generally differentiated in the today's time according to armed services. These are mostly ground forces (army), naval forces (navy) and air forces (Air Force). Some states supplement their armed forces by further armed services, like a coast guard or the naval infantry. In Germany besides still the ranges armed forces basis as well as the Sanitätsdienst are led as a armed service.
In democratically organized societies the role of the military is distinguished from that of the domestic security forceses (police). In addition protective mechanisms exist, in order to control the military. This shows up in the characteristic of a so-called parliament army. On the other hand these two functions are mixed and the military take over tasks relating to domestic affairs in many repressive states. Expression for this dualism is the Gendarmerie. Gendarmes are likewise frequently part of the armed forces as once in France or been subordinate historically the defense department like the earlier Bundesgendarmerie in Austria. Condition and administrative standards guarantee with the fact that such units in the peace the interior and/or. are subordinate to the law department.
So-called paramilitärische organizations, or militias (usually officially non-military units, which have however nevertheless similar tasks), which in many not when designated war armed conflicts (for instance civil wars) participate, apply officially as an armed force and according to international conventions are also differently treated.
In accordance with that Geneva conventions with the involved ones in a military conflict in principle between Kombattanten and the civilian population one differentiates. Kombattanten are all under weapons standing and also as such recognizable members of a conflict party. Only they are also not justified and contrary to civilians directly against opposing impact protected to war actions. Determined rights, like fair legal proceedings, are to them at the disposal in case of war shank. In contrast to this the USA introduced that according to international law strongly disputed term „of the illegal Kombattanten “.
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Military History: The Definitive Visual Guide to the Objects of Warfare
Military History, now in paperback, is the ultimate guide to weapons, vehicles, hardware, and equipment of war throughout history.
Military History is the definitive guide to the evolution of battlefield technology. In addition to comprehensively cataloging every significant weapon of each historical age, Military History pays particular attention to breakthroughs and advancements that transformed the capabilities of soldiers and the nature of warfare itself.
Stunning "virtual tours" offer up-close investigation of key weapons as the book moves chronologically from battle axes to unmanned drones — helping trace the history of warfare from a fascinating perspective that's both scientific in its focus and utterly human in its impact.
From the siege towers and catapults employed by ancient warriors to the stealth bombers and unmanned drones used by today's armed forces, Military History explores in detail the weapons, armor, vehicles, aircraft, and hardware that have made the difference in the heat of battle time and time again.
The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050
The Dynamics of Military Revolution bridges a major gap in the emerging literature on revolutions in military affairs. It suggests that two very different phenomena have been at work over the past centuries: "military revolutions," which are driven by vast social and political changes, and "revolutions in military affairs," which military institutions have directed, although usually with great difficulty and ambiguous results. MacGregor Knox and Williamson Murray provide a conceptual framework and historical context for understanding the patterns of change, innovation, and adaptation that have marked war in the Western world since the fourteenth century--beginning with Edward III's revolution in medieval warfare, through the development of modern military institutions in seventeenth-century France, to the military impact of mass politics in the French Revolution, the cataclysmic military-industrial struggle of 1914-1918, and the German Blitzkrieg victories of 1940. Case studies and a conceptual overview offer an indispensible introduction to revolutionary military change,--which is as inevitable as it is difficult to predict. Macgregor Knox is the Stevenson Professor of International History at the London School of Economics and Political Science. He is the author of Common Destiny (Cambridge, 2000) and Hitler's Italian Allies (Cambridge, 2000). Knox and Murray are co-editors of Making of Strategy (Cambridge, 1996). Willamson Murray is Senior Fellow at the Institute for Defense Analysis. He is the co-editor of Military Innovation in the Interwar Period (Cambridge, 1996) and author of A War to Be Won (Harvard University Press, 2000).
The Military Revolution: Military Innovation and the Rise of the West, 1500-1800
Well before the Industrial Revolution, Europe developed the superior military potential and expertise that enabled her to dominate the world for the next two centuries. In this attractively illustrated and updated edition, Geoffrey Parker discusses the major changes in the military practice of the West during this time period--establishment of bigger armies, creation of superior warships, the role of firearms--and argues that these major changes amounted to a "military revolution" that gave Westerners a decided advantage over people of other continents. A new chapter addresses the controversies engendered by the previous edition.
Modern Military Geography
This book of contributed chapters by subject matter expertly provides an overview and analysis of salient contemporary and historical military subjects from the military geographer’s perspective. Factors of geography have had a compelling influence on battles and campaigns throughout history; however, geography and military affairs have gained heightened attention during the past two decades, and military geography is the discipline best situated to explain them. Hence, the premise of this book and its contents are founded on the principle that geographical knowledge of space, place, people, and scale provide essential insights into contemporary security issues and promotes the idea that such insight is critical to understanding and managing significant military problems at local, regional, and global scales.
Battles that Changed History
This illustrated guide to history's most famous battles explores military history from ancient battles to the American Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Cold War, and beyond.
Featuring stunning illustrations and in-depth analysis, this military history book uses maps, paintings, and photographs to reveal the stories behind more than 90 of the most important battles ever to take place. From medieval battles and great naval battles to the era of high-tech air battles, key wars and campaigns are analyzed in detail--the weapons, the soldiers, the military strategy, and the fateful decisions that led to glorious victories and crushing defeats. Famous military leaders are profiled, including Alexander the Great, Joan of Arc, Napoleon, Rommel, and others, and crucial arms, armor, and equipment are explained.
Whether at Hastings, Gettysburg, or Stalingrad, Battles That Changed History takes you into the thick of combat and shows how kingdoms and empires have been won and lost on the battlefield throughout history.