Genghis Khan is even today a concept for many people. However, the fact that behind this name, a title and no real name for a human hides, is less well known.
Origin and adolescence:
The man who bore the title of Genghis Khan was born around 1162 as son of a small, Mongol tribal chief Yesügai and his wife Hoe'lun-Ujin with the name Temüdschin. He belonged to the tribe of Mongghol, to the clan of Borjigin, who, like most Mongolian tribes at the time, led a life as equestrian nomads.
Since his earliest childhood Temüdschin learned horseback riding, archery and hunting. Due to the raids of his father against other tribes, the family had come to a certain prosperity. As usual with the Mongols, Yesügai went to see his son at the age of 9 years on bride. At a friendly tribe they found a pretty daughter of the tribal leader and Temüdschin remained for the time being with his future in-laws.
In the meantime, his father, who was riding alone, took on the hospitality of the Tatars on the way. When they recognized Yesugai as their enemy, they poisoned his food, which Yesügai also died. After Temüdschin had heard the news of his father's death, he also set off for his mother and younger brothers.
Due to his small age Temüdschin was not recognized on his return from the tribe as a successor to the leadership and the tribe broke up gradually. Without protection Temüdschins family were robbed of their belongings, so the family quickly impoverished. Due to the constant conflict between the brothers, Temüdschin's half-brother Bektar later also died by the hand Temüdschin itself. Because other tribal leaders still had fears for revenge and want to eliminate the family because of the aristocratic descent of the family, they had to flee again and again.
The union of Mongolian tribes:
Over time, Temüdschin realized that in the steppe, only the stronger can survive with the right allies. Thus, he was able to gradually eliminate his enemies by skillful diplomacy or violence, so that he had united in 1190 most of the Mongol tribes and began to subjugate neighboring steppe peoples.
In 1201, he succeeded his hitherto largest victory against his former oath and blood brother, the Gurkhan Dschamucha. He was able to flee after the first defeat, but through his ever-changing alliances he brought his former friends against him, who then delivered him to Temüdschin. To set an example, Temüdschin then let all friends of Jamalha and their family kill. He then again offered his friendship to Jamucha, but the latter refused and asked for his death. The wish was fulfilled.
In 1202 Temüdschin defeated the Merkites in the north of his empire. Then he saw himself and his army as strong enough to take action against the hated Tatars in the east in revenge for the death of his father. The four tribes of the Tartars were beaten, then Temüdschin carried out a veritable purge against the Tartars, in which each of the greater than the axis of an ox-cart was killed.
In 1203 he defeated the Keraiten, 1204 the Naimanen. He had unrestricted power over the Mongols.
The title of Genghis Khan:
In 1206 Temüdschin called the so-called Kuriltai, or known as the Reichstag. There he was appointed by the shamans and tribal chiefs Genghis Khan, the title Khan was already a ruler title.
Subsequently, Genghis Khan carried out far-reaching reforms in his new state. His family (mother and brothers) was used as government. He formulated an existing constitution, the so-called Jassa, in which the basic laws were regulated. In order to increase his army, he also introduced conscription and appointed soldiers who have distinguished themselves by their deeds and loyalty to military leaders. So he disempowered the hitherto prevailing tribal aristocracy.
After Genghis Khan had established his rule and ordered the administration of his empire, he again set on expansion, with his focus on the area of today's China. So he subjugated the Tanguts in 1209 and led his army in 1211 in the dominated by the Jin Dynasty area in the south and east of China to the peninsula Shandong. In 1215 he conquered the peninsula and even Korea had to pay tribute to him from 1219.
In the West, on the other hand, Khan was able to negotiate a treaty of friendship with the Islamic Khmermic Empire in Persia, but it soon broke apart when a Mongolian caravan invaded and the merchants were killed.
The campaign of revenge by Genghis Khan was conducted accordingly with all severity. So his troops defeated in 1219/1220 the troops of the Khorezmian Empire at Transoxania and Bukhara and Samarkand were conquered. The Sultan Ala ad-Din Muhammad died while fleeing, his son fled to India.
In 1220, Genghis Khan had his troops march north to the Caucasus and southern Russia for the first time. In this campaign, his soldiers exposed a particular brutality, so that the call of the Mongols in Europe accordingly made the rounds as barbarous and inhumanly fast. In 1223, Ukraine fell under the onslaught of Mongol troops.
Genghis Khan's death and his successor:
In 1224/1225 Genghis Khan returned from a punitive expedition against the Tanguts. On the way back, the Mongol ruler died, probably on 18 August 1227. Exact details of the date and cause of death are unknown. One of the most common theories suggests heavy injury from a riding accident, but even the murder by a Tangut princess, who wanted to get a rape before holds until today.
As well as the cause of death is known exactly the burial place of Genghis Khan. According to tradition, about 1,000 riders have leveled his place of burial by their hooves and then killed, so that no one knows the exact location. In any case, the Genghis Khan Mausoleum at Ordos in Inner Mongolia is to be excluded, because here only an empty coffin stands and is rather a memorial.
After Khan's death and on his instructions to succession inheritance, his second youngest son Ögedei took power in the Mongol empire. Because of his prudence and prudence, he was given the inheritance and not, as usual, the eldest son.
The Mongol Empire were then divided under Genghis Khan's sons Tschagatai, Ögedei and Tolui and the descendants of the deceased fourth son Dschötschi into separate parts (khanate).
You can find the right literature here:
Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World
The name Genghis Khan often conjures the image of a relentless, bloodthirsty barbarian on horseback leading a ruthless band of nomadic warriors in the looting of the civilized world. But the surprising truth is that Genghis Khan was a visionary leader whose conquests joined backward Europe with the flourishing cultures of Asia to trigger a global awakening, an unprecedented explosion of technologies, trade, and ideas. In Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World, Jack Weatherford, the only Western scholar ever to be allowed into the Mongols’ “Great Taboo”—Genghis Khan’s homeland and forbidden burial site—tracks the astonishing story of Genghis Khan and his descendants, and their conquest and transformation of the world.
Genghis Khan: His Conquests, His Empire, His Legacy
Combining fast-paced accounts of battles with rich cultural background and the latest scholarship, Frank McLynn brings vividly to life the strange world of the Mongols and Genghis Khan's rise from boyhood outcast to world conqueror. McLynn provides the most accurate and absorbing account yet of one of the most powerful men ever to have ever lived.
Genghis Khan & The Mongol Empire
Excellent reading for those interested in a concise, rich text, with contributions from archeology to biological anthropology and dendrochronology.