The battleship Justice was the second ship of the Liberté class, which consisted of a total of 4 ships and was built at the beginning of the 20th century for the French navy.
Launch and design:
Originally the 4 ships of the Liberté class were meant as ships of the République class, which should consist of 8 battleships instead of 4. Since at this time in Great Britain the ships of the King Edward VII class were built and had a clearly stronger middle artillery with 230 mm caliber guns, however, a revision and adjustment of the last 4 ships of the République class was demanded at short notice by the French marine ministry.
Ironically, the ships of the République class should already have a stronger middle artillery, but before construction this was rejected by the Navy Ministry, now it should be made up.
Thus the basic construction of the ships was retained, only the planned 164 mm guns were replaced by 194 mm guns. Thus the length of the ships remained with 135,25 meters, the width with 24,25 meters and the displacement with 14.900 tons.
The main guns of 4 x 305 mm in two twin turrets at the front and rear of the ship were also retained. The new 194 mm guns were housed in 6 individual turrets and 4 in casemates in the hull of the ship. Further 13 x 65 mm guns and 10 x 47 mm guns were added.
The main belt along the ship was equipped with 280 mm thick armour. The principle of the double deck was also adopted, with the upper deck retaining 54 mm armour and the lower deck 51 mm. The two twin turrets of the main guns were armoured with 360 mm, those of the middle artillery and casemates between 156 and 174 mm.
Three vertical triple expansion steam engines, driven by 22 Belleville boilers and with an output of 17.500 hp, served as propulsion. This enabled a maximum speed of 18 knots.
The launch of the Justice then took place on 27 October 1904, the commissioning in February 1908.
History of Justice:
After the commissioning and the test runs the Justice was assigned to the 2nd squadron of the Mediterranean fleet and served there as flagship.
With this squadron the first manoeuvres and exercises were carried out in June and July 1908, in October a trip to the port of Bizerte was undertaken. At the end of December, together with the battleship Vérité and the two destroyers Carquois and Fanfare, Justice was involved in the relief operation for civilians in Sicily who were dependent on relief supplies after an earthquake.
From February to April 1909, exercises were again carried out from Corsica in the Mediterranean Sea, then some of the squadron's battleships, including the Justice, moved to the Atlantic to carry out exercises with the warships there. From September 12 to October 27, the Justice was one of the French warships that participated in the 300th anniversary of the discovery of the Hudson River in the United States of America.
In 1910, a simulated attack on the port of Nice began in collaboration with ships of the Atlantic Squadron. In May a manoeuvre of the 1st squadron of the Mediterranean fleet followed, which was supplemented by the ships of the 2nd squadron in June. There were frequent technical problems with the main guns of the Justice, so that the ship was in the shipyard in Toulon from 13 to 21 July. In the following months further exercises were carried out, which had to be interrupted only in December for some time, when typhoid fever spread on the ships.
In April 1911, Justice took part in the visit of the French Minister of the Navy and the Minister of Public Works, Posts and Telegraphs to Bizerte, during which a naval parade was also held together with two British battleships, two Italian battleships and a Spanish cruiser. In May, together with the rest of the squadron, the ship made a tour of the Mediterranean, visiting the ports of Cagliari, Bizerte, Bône, Philippeville, Algiers and Bougie. In August 1911 the battleships of the Danton class were handed over to the French navy and assigned to the 1st squadron of the Mediterranean fleet. Manoeuvres of the new ships followed together with the battleships of the 2nd squadron. On the 25th of September a serious accident occurred in the drydoch in Toulon on the Liberté when the propellants of the grenades exploded and destroyed the ship. The commission subsequently commissioned to investigate the incident moved into its quarters on the Justice, from where it conducted its investigations. Similar incidents took place less than a month after the accident on the Liberté, both on the battleship Suffren and on the Justice. Both accidents could only be prevented by the rapid flooding of the ammunition rooms before the grenades of the ships exploded.
On 22 January 1912, the Justice was one of the French ships lying in the port of Valletta when British King George V and Queen Mary arrived from India on their voyage to visit the warships. For the rest of the year, the annual exercises and manoeuvres were carried out in the Mediterranean.
1913 began from February with renewed manoeuvres. In May, the largest manoeuvre to date was carried out when 16 French battleships took part. On the night of 19 to 20 December 1913, the République, Justice, Vérité and Démocratie battleships lay in the port of Les Salins as a heavy storm raged. The démocratie was pushed from its berth and collided with the Justice, destroying its anchor chain and tearing off two of the armour plates from the bow. Both ships were then sent to Toulon for repair.
Until the middle of 1914 the annual manoeuvres in the Mediterranean were carried out again, until after the murder of the Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Serbia the diplomatic situation became more and more acute and the French warships were instructed to remain near their home ports and to be put on alert.
Use in war:
When the First World War broke out in Europe, the French warships in the Mediterranean were ordered to travel to Algeria and accompany the troop transports there to France, since the leadership of the French navy feared that German ships could attack these transports.
After this task was completed and both France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary on August 12, 1914, the French warships were sent to the southern Adriatic to force the Austrian-Hungarian fleet to leave the port and fight them. However, only the two ships Zenta and Ulan were tracked down, whereby in the following battle the Zenta could be sunk, but the Ulan escaped. The rest of the fleet remained in the safe harbours.
Until December 1914 the ships patrolled the coasts and shelled some fortifications. On the 17th of August the Démocratie collided with the Justice, when dense fog severely restricted visibility. While in the Justice only the bow was damaged, the Démocratie lost a rudder and the middle propeller. The 4 days lasting repair of the Justice was carried out in Malta, afterwards the ship took over again her tasks along the coast of Austria-Hungary. When the French battleship Jean Bart was attacked by a submarine in December, the French battleships retreated to the southern Mediterranean because they were insufficiently protected against torpedoes.
After Italy entered the war against Austria-Hungary in 1915, the Italian navy took over the tasks of securing the ships and the French warships withdrew mainly to the ports of Malta and Bizerte.
In January 1916, together with the Démocratie, Justice was assigned to the fleet before the Dardanelles, although at that time the Allied troops were already in retreat and had to evacuate the beaches. Subsequently, in June, the 3rd squadron was strengthened with the ships Justice, 2 of their sister ships, the battleship Suffren and the ships of the République class. This was then sent to Greece to exert pressure on the monarch and prevent him from entering the war alongside the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire. In August 1916, a group of putschists prepared the overthrow of the Greek monarch with the aim of entering the war alongside the Allies. This group was supported by French and British soldiers who went ashore in Athens on 1 December. However, the group was quickly pushed back by Greek soldiers and armed civilians. The Allied warships then blocked the Greek ports. After the abdication of the monarch in June 1917, the 3rd squadron was dissolved again and the Justice was assigned to the 2nd squadron again in July.
The ships of the squadron spent the rest of 1917 and most of 1918 in the port of Corfu. On the one hand this was due to the continuing shortage of coal and on the other hand because neither the warships of Austria-Hungary nor those of the Ottoman Empire left their ports and therefore no battles took place.
After the negotiations about an armistice between the participating states began, a part of the squadron was sent to Constantinople to supervise the transfer of the warships of the Ottoman Empire, the other part was sent to the Black Sea to supervise the return of the Russian warships from Germany.
On 8 December 1918, Justice was ordered to go to the port of the Russian city of Odessa and support the Mirabeau battleship, which was already there. After the arrival of the Justice, fears increased that the Bolshevik forces were on the verge of storming the city. Thus, troops were brought ashore by the adjacent French warships to strengthen the defence.
On 1 January 1919, the Justice returned to Constantinople, after the French ships in the Black Sea were strengthened by several battleships. After the French naval command had decided in mid-April to end its intervention from the Russian Civil War, the crews of the French warships hoped to return home. But after the crews became aware on April 19 that the return was not planned for the time being, mutinies began on the ships Justice, France and Jean Bart. After the mutinies could be reduced somewhat by the landings of the crews, these increased however, after it came to an exchange of fire between Greek soldiers and demonstrators and there were also dead. On the Justice the crew even tried to fire at the nearby Greek battleship Kilkis. Only after the guns of the Justice were locked, the rebellion was over again. Then the French naval command gave in and ordered the return of the ships to France.
The Justice was sent to Sevastopol to tow the damaged battleship Mirabeau. First to Constantinople both ships finally entered Toulon on 24 May 1919.
After the last operation on 6 June 1919 to tow the damaged torpedo boat Commandant Rivière, the Justice was used as a training ship.
On 1 April 1920 it was finally transferred to the reserve and decommissioned on 1 March 1921.
On 30 December 1921 it was sold and scrapped from 1922 in Hamburg.
|Type of ship:||
Ateliers et Toulon
October 27th, 1904
Sold on 30 December 1921 and scrapped in Hamburg starting in 1922
Max. 8,2 meters
Max. 14.900 tons
|Drive:||22 Belleville steam boiler
3 vertical triple expansion machines
18 knots (33 kilometres per hour)
4 × 305 mm guns
10 × 194 mm guns
13 × 65 mm guns
10 × 47 mm guns
2 × 450 mm torpedo tubes
Belt: 280 mm
You can find the right literature here:
French Battleships 1914–45 (New Vanguard)
This authoritative study examines the French Navy's last battleships, using detailed color plates and historical photographs, taking them from their inception before World War I, through their service in World War II including the scuttling of the French fleet at Toulon in 1943, and the service of Richelieu in the war against Japan.
On September 1, 1910, France became the last great naval power to lay down a dreadnought battleship, the Courbet. The ensuing Courbet and Bretagne-class dreadnoughts had a relatively quiet World War I, spending most of it at anchor off the entrance to the Adriatic, keeping watch over the Austro-Hungarian fleet. The constraints of the Washington Naval Treaty prevented new battleships being built until the 1930s, with the innovative Dunkerque-class and excellent Richelieu-class of battleships designed to counter new German designs.
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This is the most comprehensive account of these ships published in English or French, and is destined be the standard reference for many years to come.
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