The Canon de 19 modèle 1870/93 TAZ was originally a French coastal gun, which was converted into a railway gun during the First World War and used against German positions.
In 1893 the Canon de 19 C modèle 1870/93 was introduced to protect the French coasts. It had a mixed casing made of a steel tube and iron reinforcing tyres and was equipped with a de Bange breech.
When the First World War broke out and in 1915 on the Western front the positional war broke out, it became apparent that the light French field guns used could cause little or no damage to the increasingly fortified German positions.
The French High Command was therefore forced to withdraw the heavy guns from the French fortresses and bring them to the front. Since the transport of the guns was often very cumbersome and took up a lot of time together with the construction, considerations were expressed to mount some of the guns on railway wagons and to use the existing rails for the transport.
The Canon de 19 modèle 1870/93 then belonged to those guns which were to be used as railway guns by appropriate reconstruction measures.
In the summer of 1915, the Schneider company began the reconstruction of the first of the 26 railway guns requested. For this purpose, a four-axle wagon was reinforced to accommodate the gun in the middle. Instead of a shield to protect the gun and the crew, the Canon de 19 modèle 1870/93 received a complete casing. The ammunition stores on both sides of the wagon were also completely enclosed by armour.
At the end of 1915 the first railway guns with the additional designation Tous Azimuts or TAZ were delivered to the western front.
There these were predominantly used for the resistance of German artillery fire until the end of the war.
After the First World War, the 26 railway guns remained in the French army. At the beginning of the Second World War, France still had 24 of the guns at its disposal against the advancing Wehrmacht. After France surrendered in 1940, these 9 guns were able to capture. The Wehrmacht put these into service under the designation 19 cm K (E) 486 (f) as coastal protection artillery.
Also Italy received 12 guns after the surrender and put these under the designation Cannone da 194/29 Modello 70/93 into service for the coastal protection. The only known operation took place on 13 March 1944 during the Battle of Montelungo.
|Designation:||Canon de 19 modèle 1870/93 TAZ|
1915 Conversion to a railway gun
|Number of pieces:||26 pieces|
|Tube length:||5,8 meters|
|Range:||Max. 18.300 meters|
You can find the right literature here:
Flesh and Steel During the Great War: The Transformation of the French Army and the Invention of Modern Warfare
Michel Goya’s Flesh and Steel during the Great War is one of the most thoughtful, stimulating and original studies of the conflict to have appeared in recent years. It is a major contribution towards a deeper understanding of the impact of the struggle on the Western Front on the theory and practice of warfare in the French army. In a series of incisive, closely argued chapters he explores the way in which the senior commanders and ordinary soldiers responded to the extraordinary challenges posed by the mass industrial warfare of the early twentieth century.
In 1914 the French army went to war with a flawed doctrine, brightly-colored uniforms and a dire shortage of modern, heavy artillery How then, over four years of relentless, attritional warfare, did it become the great, industrialized army that emerged victorious in 1918?
To show how this change occurred, the author examines the pre-war ethos and organization of the army and describes in telling detail how, through a process of analysis and innovation, the French army underwent the deepest and fastest transformation in its history.
Breaking Point of the French Army: The Nivelle Offensive of 1917
In December 1916 General Robert Nivelle was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the French armies fighting the Germans on the Western Front. He had enjoyed a meteoric rise to high command and public acclaim since the beginning of the war - he was a national hero. In return, he proclaimed he ‘had the formula’ that would ensure victory and end the conflict in 1917. But his offensive was a bloody and humiliating failure for France, one that could have opened the way for French defeat.
This is the subject of David Murphy’s penetrating, in-depth study of one of the key events in the history of the Great War. He describes how Nivelle, a highly intelligent and articulate officer, used his charm to win the support of French and British politicians, but also how he was vain and boastful and displayed no sense of operational security. By the opening of the campaign, his plan was an open secret and he had lost the ability to critically assess the operation as it developed. The result was disaster.
They Shall Not Pass: The French Army on the Western Front 1914-1918
This graphic collection of first-hand accounts sheds new light on the experiences of the French army during the Great War. It reveals in authentic detail the perceptions and emotions of soldiers and civilians who were caught up in the most destructive conflict the world had ever seen.
Their testimony gives a striking insight into the mentality of the troops and their experience of combat, their emotional ties to their relatives at home, their opinions about their commanders and their fellow soldiers, the appalling conditions and dangers they endured, and their attitude to their German enemy. In their own words, in diaries, letters, reports and memoirs - most of which have never been published in English before - they offer a fascinating inside view of the massive life-and-death struggle that took place on the Western Front.
Ian Sumner provides a concise narrative of the war in order to give a clear context to the eyewitness material. In effect the reader is carried through the experience of each phase of the war on the Western Front and sees events as soldiers and civilians saw them at the time. This emphasis on eyewitness accounts provides an approach to the subject that is completely new for an English-language publication.
The author’s pioneering work will appeal to readers who may know something about the British and German armies on the Western Front, but little about the French army which bore the brunt of the fighting on the allied side. His book represents a milestone in publishing on the Great War.
Artillery in the Great War
Artillery was the decisive weapon of the Great War - it dominated the battlefields. Yet the history of artillery during the conflict has been neglected, and its impact on the fighting is inadequately understood. Paul Strong and Sanders Marble, in this important and highly readable study, seek to balance the account.Their work shows that artillery was central to the tactics of the belligerent nations throughout the long course of the conflict, in attack and in defense. They describe, in vivid detail, how in theory and practice the use of artillery developed in different ways among the opposing armies, and they reveal how artillery men on all sides coped with the extraordinary challenges that confronted them on the battlefield. They also give graphic accounts of the role played by artillery in specific operations, including the battles of Le Cateau, the Somme and Valenciennes.Their work will be fascinating reading for anyone who is keen to understand the impact of artillery