The power of Rome was mainly based on his soldiers. By setting up a professional army and introducing many standards such as uniform combat equipment, weapons and training, the Roman army set the standard of a modern army for many centuries.
Emperor Augustus (31 BC - 14 AD) had come to the conclusion that it was necessary for the Roman Empire to have a standing army.
He was the founder of the Roman professional army, whose soldiers were Roman citizens.
This means that a man who wanted to serve as a soldier in the Roman army had to be a Roman citizen. So his family had to have citizenship.
The basic training usually took four months. At the beginning of his service soldiers still wore the name Probatur, so he was a soldier candidate but not a soldier in the true sense.
Important basic knowledge in the areas of camp construction, swimming, horseback riding and weapons training were taught, and the frequent marching of 30 kilometers was fully practiced, as during the campaigns often far distances had to be conquered quickly or the soldiers also now and then quickly had to withdraw.
Probatur's existence The basic training that is very hard for today's conditions, he was officially included in the list of his unit as a signatus, a full-time soldier and was able to take up his usually 25-year ministry. He was also able to take the oath of allegiance, also called Sacramentum, which is equivalent to today's vow.
The basic equipment of each Legionnaire included his helmet, shield, chain mail or scale armor.
They were armed with a long lance and a sword and dagger.
The breastplate should protect against attacks with spears and swords.
The additional jewelry on the helm of an officer should enable the soldier in the battle to easily recognize the officer.
1= rug 2= Leather bag with water or wine 3= Bag for personal items and 3 days ration 4= pickaxe 5= Peat sting
If the legionnaire was not in combat or in his castle (then known as a base for strong bases), he also had to wear his own personal equipment. These included food and spare clothing, tools, cookware and smaller personal items such as toiletries, cutlery or tokens. This equipment was carried on a wooden pole over the left shoulder and lay on the upper edge of the shield strapped over the back to support the weight. Thus, the total weight was about 40Kg at the march.
The success of the Roman army in its many military campaigns was not only due to the good training and equipment of the legionaries, but also had its reason in the well-thought-out fighting and war tactics.
The Roman army is especially known for its turtle formation. The Roman legionaries moved so close together that they formed a "tank" with their shields.
Thus, the individual soldiers were particularly well protected from attackers.
You can find the right literature here:
Legions of Rome: The Definitive History of Every Imperial Roman Legion
The complete history of every Imperial Roman legion and what it achieved as a fighting force, by an award-winning historian
In this landmark publication, Stephen Dando-Collins does what no other author has ever attempted to do: provide a complete history of every Imperial Roman legion. Based on thirty years of meticulous research, he covers every legion of Rome in rich detail. In the first part of the book, the author provides a detailed account of what the legionaries wore and ate, what camp life was like, what they were paid, and how they were motivated and punished. Part two examines the histories of all the legions that served Rome for three hundred years starting in 30 BC. The book's final section is a sweeping chronological survey of the campaigns in which the armies were involved, told from the point of view of the legions. Featuring more than 150 maps, photographs, diagrams and battle plans, Legions of Rome is an essential read for ancient history enthusiasts, military history experts and general readers alike.
The Complete Roman Legions
The legions of Rome were among the greatest fighting forces in history. For almost half a millennium they secured the known world under the power of the Caesars. This pioneering account gathers together the stories of each and every individual legion, telling the tales of their triumphs and defeats as they policed the empire and enlarged its borders.
• Part I examines the legions of the Republic from Rome’s foundation to Caesar’s legions and those of Octavian and Mark Antony in the civil wars.
• Part II provides “biographies” of all forty-five legions from 31 BC to the third century AD.
• Part III discusses the legions of Late Antiquity in the declining years of Rome’s hegemony.
• Datafiles on each legion and detailed box features on major topics complement the text.
212 illustrations, 204 in color
The Roman Army: The History and Legacy of the Military that Revolutionized Ancient Warfare and Made Rome a Global Empire
*Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading
The Roman army is one of the most famous fighting forces in history. Through its power and prowess, a once obscure Italian city forged an empire that encircled the Mediterranean and covered half of Europe. The physical remains of its presence can be traced from the mountainous borders of Scotland to the arid deserts of Egypt, but its legacy is far greater and more enduring, as Rome's influence continues to shape the political, legal, and cultural landscape of Europe to this very day.
While the Roman army is rightly famed as an institution, the image of the individual legionary is also an iconic one. The uniformed, disciplined soldier of the late Republic and early Empire is one of the first things many people imagine when they think of Rome. They are the ultimate image of the ancient soldier, their arms and armor instantly recognizable. Their abilities, not only as warriors but also as engineers and administrators, have made them role models for other soldiers through the centuries. In the same vein, their commanders are still celebrated and studied, and generals the world over have tried to emulate the likes of Julius Caesar.
Of course, recruiting and equipping the Roman army were hardly easy tasks. Gathering new recruits wasn’t difficult since service in the military was a requirement for social advancement, but new soldiers had to be trained to fight as heavy infantry and work together. For these men to be trained properly, however, they needed to have equipment, including swords, shields, javelins, helmets, and assorted armor. In addition to this, the new recruits had to be clothed, fed and paid, while commanders had to be found.
Moreover, one of the key ingredients to Rome’s success was the military’s complete willingness to incorporate discovered technologies. If a different weapon, type of armor, or basic equipment or artillery worked better than what they were using, the Romans were not afraid to adopt that piece of military hardware for their own uses. Thus, the Romans were almost always using the finest military equipment in the world, all of which had long since proven effective on the field of battle.
The Roman Army: The History and Legacy of the Military that Revolutionized Ancient Warfare and Made Rome a Global Empire examines the history of one of the most famous fighting forces in the world. Along with pictures depicting important people, places, and events, you will learn about the Roman army like never before.
An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Uniforms of the Roman World: A Detailed Study of the Armies of Rome and Their Enemies, Including the Etruscans, ... Gauls, Huns, Sassaids, Persians and Turks
An unprecedented visual reference of the fighting men of the period from 8th century BC to the fall of Constantinople in 1453, with over 670 expert images of military dress, weaponry, artillery, ships, siege engines and fortifications.
The Roman Army: The Greatest War Machine of the Ancient World (General Military)
The image of the Roman legionary is as familiar today as it was to the citizens - and enemies - of the vast Roman Empire two thousand years ago. This book goes beyond the stereotypes found in popular culture to examine the Roman Army from the first armed citizens of the early Republic through the glorious heights of the Imperial legions to the shameful defeats inflicted upon the late Roman Army by the Goths and Huns. Tracing the development of tactics, equipment and training, this work provides a detailed insight into the military force that enable Rome to become the greatest empire the world has ever seen.
As well as describing the changes in the army over the centuries, The Roman Army also sheds light on the talented men who led these soldiers in battle and the momentous battles fought, including Cannae, Pharsalus, and Adrianople. Illustrated with detailed maps, artwork and photographs, this volume provides a complete reference to the Roman Army from the 8th century BC to the period after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD.