Xerxes I.

Xerxes I ruled as Achaemenid king and Egyptian pharaoh from 486 to 465 BC. About the Persian Empire.


Born 519 BC As the son of the Persian Great King Darius I and Atossa, a daughter of Cyrus II, he joined in 486 BC. Chr. The succession of his father as Regent. Right at the beginning of his reign, he had rebellions in Egypt, which wanted to dissolve under the leadership of Psammetich IV of the Persian Empire, and settle in Babylon. After the order was restored in his own empire, he could devote himself to his next destination in Greece. A punitive expedition in 490 BC Started in a defeat, so that Xerxes was busy for the next 4 years to set up a new force for the war.


Xerxes I.

Xerxes I.


In the course of the new campaign he built ship bridges over the Hellespont and the Xerxes Canal and invaded Greece again. Although some decisive tactical achievements were made at the beginning, after the devastating defeat of his fleet at the Battle of Salamis, the army withdrew on Xerxe's orders and only a part of it was left behind in Greece under the leadership of Mardonius.


Xerxes Statue in der ehemaligen persischen Hauptstadt Persepolis

Xerxes statue in the former Persian capital of Persepolis


479/478 BC Xerxes, meanwhile, destroyed the tower of Babylon and the statue of Marduk in his own country, which meant not only the territorial but also the cultural end of Babylon.


Due to internal disputes Xerxes was on 4 August 465 BC. Murdered by his Guard Commander Artabanos. This led to the murder of Dareios, Xerxes eldest son, who was subsequently murdered by his younger brother Artaxerxes I. A plot by Artabanos could be thwarted, in the course of which Artabanos himself was killed and Artaxerxes I succeeded the succession of Xerxes I.


Felsgrab des Großkönigs Xerxes in Naqsch-e Rostam

Rock tomb of the great king Xerxes in Naqsch-e Rostam






You can find the right literature here:


Xerxes: Makers of History

Xerxes: Makers of History (Timeless Classic Books) Paperback – January 8, 2011

Xerxes I ruled from 485 - 465 B.C., presiding over ancient Persia's decline from mighty power to fading empire. His father Darius was defeated by the Greeks at the battle of Marathon (490 B.C.), and 10 years later Xerxes assembled a vast army to invade Greece and avenge his father's defeat. Xerxes crossed the Hellespont (now called the Dardanelles) and methodically overran Greece. He won a costly victory at Thermopylae -- the famous battle which ended with 300 Spartan warriors defying the entire Persian army in a last battle to the death -- and finally reached Athens and sacked the deserted city. But the invasion ended in disaster when the Persian navy was routed by the Greek fleet at Salamis (480 B.C.). Xerxes retreated to his palace in Persepolis, leaving behind an occupying army which was defeated by the Greeks shortly thereafter. Persia remained a formidable nation but Xerxes withdrew from active life, devoting himself to what Herodotus called "the intrigues of the harem." 15 years later Xerxes was stabbed to death, probably by his subordinate Artabanus, and was succeeded by his son Artaxerxes.

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Persian Empire: Illustrated Edition

Persian Empire: Illustrated Edition: Conquests in Mesopotamia and Egypt, Wars Against Ancient Greece, The Great Emperors: Cyrus the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I Paperback – April 15, 2019

The First Persian Empire was a country of the Achaemenid dynasty, based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history. This book describes conquests of the greatest Persian emperors, Cyrus the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I and the expansion of their country. Contents: Extent of the Empire. Climate and Productions. Character, Manners and Customs. Language and Writing. Architecture and Other Arts. Religion. Chronology and History.

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The Battle of Thermopylae

The Battle of Thermopylae: A Captivating Guide to One of the Greatest Battles in Ancient History Between the Spartans and Persians Paperback – April 27, 2019

The Battle of Thermopylae is one of the most famous battles in human history. It featured two of the ancient world’s most prominent cultures, the Achaemenid-led Persian Empire and the fragmented yet culturally advanced Greeks. It also included some of history’s most famous leaders, such as the Persian king Xerxes and the Spartan king and military general Leonidas.

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